During the past 10 years, in the aftermath of the revolution Ethiopia has undergone a sweeping social and economic transformation. It led to highly urbanized cities and states although it never progressed well. Now Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the Africa and housing conditions in the country have always been generally poor and overcrowded. Population increase outstripping the economic growth will result, among other things, in pronounced shortage of housing, food insecurity and poor health, The purpose of this paper is to give an analysis of the problems and prospects of housing development in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the city of Addis Ababa.
In the urban areas, shortage of housing is one of the major problems that call for immediate action. The majority of houses in Ethiopia are below qualitative standard and lack adequate space. Except in Addis Ababa, Harer, Dire Dawa, and a few other urban centers, most houses are built of mud or mortar and have thatched or tin roofs. The extent of provision for water supply, electricity, and drainage is very minimal. So unfortunately in today’s market finding properties at a good price can be difficult.
The vast majority of Ethiopians live in poorly built, dilapidated and cramped houses which lack even the basic facilities, such as toilets. Only 30% of the current housing stock in country is in a fair condition, with the remaining 70% in need of total replacement. Access to safe drinking water is 49% countrywide only 20.7% of the population has access to adequate sanitation. Most families who live in dilapidated homes in slum areas share toilets that are also in very poor condition. 24% of the households do not have any form of toilet facility and 63% use shared pit latrines. 25% of the solid waste generated from the city is left unattended.
There is substancial imbalalce between demand for and supply of housing units in Addis Ababa. Accumulated demand for residential housing on the one hand and the low supply of residential land on the other have pushed prices beyond the reach of the majority of the residents in the country including Addis Ababa.
The costs of renovating slums are often greater than similar new houses built on an open sub-urban land. These services should be provided to families who live in urban slum areas with extremely poor sanitation and limited water supply.There should be urban renewals at slum area of cities to change the poor environmental conditions prevalent in the localities.
Overcoming the housing problem, hence, requires efforts in three main areas: housing demand; housing supply; and institutional framework. Improving the conditions in these areas in turn requires the combined efforts of the government of Ethiopia, regional administrations and donor agencies.This can work by taking the view that overall development of the economy is crucial for the housing development in Ethiopia. Government should build low-cost houses to cater for the large number of people who, due to their low-income earnings, could not afford a decent apartment. They should also develop economic, social and environmental policies that facilitate housing that is both affordable and sustainable.
One of the general objectives of this paper was to assess the stock of housing by type of building and the materials used in the construction of housing in Ethiopia and how it has affected it. This is shown by a fact that a large part of the population of Urban Ethiopia lives in housing conditions which are below the internationally set or suggested standards .So even though housing problem has been a great epidemic in Ethiopia one way to act is asking your city what they’re doing about affordable housing. Help make your communities more inclusive and connected through inclusive zoning, fair housing laws, and access to public transportation. This can improve economic and social well being!